Based on Z. Proshina book
to transfer information from one person to another. Translation helps people
communicate if they speak different languages. Thus, Russian to English translation,
as well as English to Russian translation is a two-facet phenomenon: on
the one hand, it is the process of transferring information; on the other
hand, it is the result of this process. By the result is meant a new text
created in translating.
For the translation from Russian to English and from English to Russian, to be adequate and effective, the target text should be equivalent to the source text. Indeed, when reading tragedies by Shakespeare in Russian, the receptor is but seldom aware that the words s/he sees in the text were not written by Shakespeare but by some other person, a translator. The form of the target text is new but the purport and the content are very close to the original. Paradoxically, the better a translator's work, the less his/her work is observed. The translated text is attributed to the author speaking another language and this text is used everywhere as if it were the original. Thus, translation from Russian to English and from English to Russian translation unifies two different language speech acts in one communicative situation. It can be defined as a special type of communication intended to convey information between the participants speaking two different languages. As E. Nida and C. Taber put it, "translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language meaning and secondly in terms of style.”